Chinese astronomy has a long history of unique tradition. The ancient Chinese has long conducted making the calendar by observing astronomical phenomena. China has not only invented unique ways of astronomical observation and instrumentation, but also maintained the world's longest continuous astronomical records, as well as more than 100 astronomical calendars. From 10th to 16th Centuries, ancient Chinese astronomy had reached its peak, holding a leading position in the world.
As Western astronomy was transmitted into China since 16th Century, Chinese astronomers began “to integrate Chinese astronomy with Western one”. A series of modern astronomical research institutions and observatories built in the early 20th century. In 1911, after Yat-sen Sun's new government replaced the Qing Dynasty, a Central Observatory was set up. On Oct. 30, 1922, more than 40 scholars and celebrities held the meeting at the Beijing Ancient Astronomical Observatory to found Chinese Astronomical Society.
Since the founding of People's Republic of China, Chinese astronomy has formulated an infrastructure of “Five Observatories and One Astronomical Instrument Factory, Three Astronomical Departments and Three Research Groups, and Four Astronomical Stations and One Planetarium”, coupled with initial planning and the comprehensive layout and construction for astronomical development.